Dryland Rules derzeit nur in EN. Deusche Fassung in Arbeit.
Dryland Race Rules EN Vers.16.1
In case of differences in interpretation, the German version shall take precedence.
Table of Contents
BICYCLE: A two-wheeled vehicle, propelled by pedals driven by the contestant and pulled by his/her dog during the competition.
CHECK POINT: A clearly defined and marked area adjacent to the trail, where drivers and officials only are admitted.
CONTROL AREA: A specially defined area before the start and after the finish where only authorized persons are allowed, unless otherwise authorized by the Race Marshal.
DRIVER: A person who drives a dog team entered in the race.
EVENT: A meeting of contestants for the purpose of competing in one event which may involve several classes.
FINISH ZONE: A specified stretch of the trail toward the finish line, minimum 800 meters, where special rules for passing apply.
GUIDELINES: A rule or set of rules, which are not mandatory but highly recommended.
HANDLER: A person assisting teams at start, after finish and at other locations authorized by the Race Marshal.
HEAT: A completion of the trail, or a part of same, after which the ongoing timing is discontinued.
LINE: The line to which the dog(s) is/are attached to pull the vehicle (sled, bike, scooter, rig) is made of different elements. The various elements together are called the Gang Line. The line running between the dogs (if more than one dog) is called the Tow Line or Central Line. The dog is attached to the tow line from the back of its harness by a Tug Line or Tail Line and may be attached from the collar to the tow line by a Neck Line.
OFFICIAL: A person appointed by the organizer or the Rules Enforcing Officers, authorized to perform, within prescribed limits, to act on their behalf.
ORGANIZATION/ORGANIZER: The organization/organizer in charge of running the event: the race giving organization/organizer (RGO).
RACE: A competition in a specified class and may be comprised of one or more heats.
RACE AREA: All designated parking areas, spectator areas, team holding areas, start/finish chutes, officiating areas and the trail areas.
RACE JUDGE: Rules Enforcing Officer, has the same authority as the Race Marshal / Chief Judge, except in the question of disqualification. References to the Race Marshal in these Rules shall also apply for the Race Judge(s), when appropriate.
RACE JURY: The Race Jury includes the Race Marshal, the Race Judges and any other official the Race Marshal may wish to include.
RACE MARSHAL (RM): The Chief Judge, i.e. the person who shall have supreme authority at an event. The Race Marshal is the only official who can decide upon a disqualification.
RIG: A three or four-wheeled vehicle driven by the contestant and pulled by his/her dog team during the competition.
SEASON: The racing season, the period within which all competitions shall be commenced and concluded, in principle from July until June of the following year in the northern hemisphere and from November until October of the following year in the southern hemisphere. However, organizers and technical organizers shall realize that local conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity etc.) may shorten this period in favour of the wellbeing of the dogs.
SCOOTER: A two-wheeled scooter-type vehicle driven by the contestant and pulled by his/her dog team during the competition.
SLED DOG: A sled dog is an FCI recognised Nordic Breed dog (Siberian Husky; Greenland Dog; Samoyed & Alaskan Malamute), capable of being harnessed and of competing in one of the classes listed in the WSA Regulations without a potential, beforehand, to be a calculated risk, of harming the dog’s well-being.
STAKE-OUT AREA: A specially defined area where dogs of participating teams shall be kept when not competing.
STARTING CHUTE: A specified stretch of the trail from the starting line, minimum 30 meters long and 4 meters wide, where help is allowed
TECHNICAL ORGANIZER: A body, which, upon an agreement and in close co-operation with the organizer, has assumed responsibility.
VEHICLE HOLDING AREA: A specially defined area where the participants’ vehicles shall be parked in case this cannot be combined with the stake out area.
SHALL: Shall be construed as being imperative.
SHOULD: Shall be construed as advisory.
MAY: Shall be construed as being permissive.
In this Rule and other WSA Regulations, where appropriate, the words “Competitor”, “Contestant”, “Driver”, “Athlete”, etc. shall include “the competitor and/or his/her dog(s)”; and the singular shall include the plural.
(Applies to all classes)
Note: In case of discrepancy between general rules and special rules, the special rules shall prevail.
I. ENTRY RULES
1.1.1 An entry for a race shall be submitted prior to the start of the race, subject to entry deadlines as determined by the organization. A musher may start for the country of which he/she holds a valid passport or in which he/she has had his/her primary place of residence for at least the past 12 months. The musher may not change the country for which he/she starts within the racing season.
1.1.2 The organization may reject any entry for just cause.
1.1.3 A liability insurance is mandatory for drivers and handlers covering the risks of sled dog racing and all consequences.
1.1.4 Entry for a minor driver (usually below 16 years of age) shall be co-signed by parents or guardians. With their signature, they declare that they are of the opinion that the minor driver is capable to participate in the total event and to safely cover the trail in the applicable class as established by the organizer. Consequently, their signature is a waiver through which they hold the organizer harmless regarding any claim, liability, any other expenses or accusations relative to the fact that the driver concerned is not an adult.
1.1.5 The Race Marshal may disallow entry of any driver, team or dog for just cause.
1.2.1 The competitor shall hold the organizer(s), judges, officials, sponsors, co- sponsors and other contributors to the organizer, (as distinguished from the individual competitor’s sponsor) harmless from any claim or demand, based on any alleged action or non-action by the competitor, his/her dogs, agents, or others acting on his/her behalf. The competitor shall also release the organizer, judges, officials, competition sponsors, their agents and employees from any claim or demand resulting from injury to the competitor, his/her dogs, or property, including but not limited to lost or dropped dogs and misplaced food and supplies.
1.2.2 Furthermore, the organizer has the unqualified and unrestricted authority with regards to pictures and the gathering of information on the competition and all participants involved, as well as to the use of such pictures and information for advertising, public relations or any other publicity purpose related to the competition.
2.1 The driver starting a team in the first heat of a race shall drive that team throughout the race.
2.2 A change in driver can only be made once and only as the result of illness or injury to the authorized entrant and must have the approval of the Race Marshal. The substitute driver shall drive the team throughout the race.
2.3 Age of competitors:
2.3.1 In Dryland classes, the minimum and maximum ages shall be: See table in Annex F.I.: Age of athletes for each class
2.4 Any driver disqualified in any heat of the race is not eligible to compete in the remainder of the race.
2.5 Drivers shall attend the drivers’ meeting held by the organiser or team leaders prior to the start of the Dryland races. The Race Marshal may waive this rule if a competitor is delayed due to unforeseen circumstances. However, in this case, the driver is responsible for obtaining a briefing from officials prior to the start of the competition.
2.6 Drivers shall not hinder- or endanger the welfare of their dogs, the progress of the event or discredit the sled dog sports. Offenders shall be disqualified.
3.1. Any team or dog coming to the starting line, which, in the opinion of the Race Marshal, is unfit or incapable of safely completing the trail, shall be disqualified.
3.2. Any team or dog not starting the first heat of the race shall not be eligible to compete in the remainder of the race.
3.3. Any team or dog disqualified in any heat of the race is in no case eligible to compete in the remainder of the race.
3.4. Eligibility of dogs is restricted to FCI recognised Nordic breeds (RNB). Only original versions (no photocopies) of FCI compliant certificates (pedigrees or registration certificates) will be recognized. Providing there are in a class at least five (5) teams starting the first heat of the race, the RGO may divide each class between Registered Siberian Husky teams (RNB1) from other RNB teams (RNB2).
3.5. Dogs participating in a race must be at least fifteen (15) months old. However, in certain classes a minimum age of 18 months is dictated.
3.5.1 Dryland: 18 months in bikejöring and scooter, 15 months in all other classes.
3.6 Any dog having raced in one class of a race shall not be eligible to race in another class on the same day, unless that other class is canicross.
3.7 Dogs may be required to undergo a physical examination by a race veterinarian in order to be allowed to start.
4. Disease (see also Annex B.II.)
4.1 No dog or equipment shall be brought from a kennel where rabies, distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis or any other contagious disease exists.
4.2 If the Race Veterinarian diagnoses any dog present in the race site to have a contagious disease, that team shall be disqualified and shall immediately leave the race site.5. Identification
5.1 In a race of more than one heat, each dog shall be marked for identification prior to the start of the first heat of the race. In case of microchip identification, the list of chip numbers shall be provided to the Race Marshal or his/her delegate as instructed by the Race Marshal or the race organizer.
5.2 Dogs dropped from teams after the first heat of a race involving more than two (2) heats, shall be marked a second time to indicate their disqualification to run in subsequent heats either via direct dog marking or via a note on the team chip list.
5.3 The contestants themselves are responsible for seeing to it that their team dogs are marked as prescribed prior to the start of the race
6. Medications administered to Dogs and Drivers
6.1. If a dog or competitor is suspected of being under the influence of any prohibited medication, the WSA reserves the right to have the dog examined and tested by a qualified veterinarian and if found positive, the driver, owner and team will suffer automatic disqualification plus any further penalty at the discretion of the WSA board. Prohibited Drugs and Drug Testing - WSA Anti-Doping Rules and regulations shall apply. It includes the WADA regulations for athletes and the specific WSA Regulations for dogs.
6.2 At races, no one is allowed to perform any medical treatment to the dogs without authorization by the official race veterinarian.
7.1.1. Drivers, teams and equipment shall be available for inspection in the stake-out or vehicle holding area at least ten (10) minutes before their scheduled time of departure unless otherwise announced by the Race Marshal.
7.1.2 When the control is completed, no equipment shall be removed from the rig/ bike/ scooter without the Race Marshal’s permission, and under supervision of the same or of an authorized official.
7.1.3. A team in harness shall not be required to stand for inspection longer than six (6) minutes before the scheduled time of departure.
7.1.4. Inspection shall take place in an area that does not interfere with starting and finishing teams.
7.1.5. A team shall be available for inspection after each heat at the request of the Race Marshal or the designated Race Judge.
7.2. All equipment is subject to the approval of the Race Marshal. However, the competitors themselves are responsible that their equipment meets the requirements as per the rules and regulations.
8. Other Equipment
8.1 A muzzle or a collar that can be hooked as a full choke shall be prohibited.
8.2 Whips are forbidden.
8.3 A racing number for each driver shall be provided by the race-giving organization. The driver shall display this number on his/her person, rig, bike or scooter throughout the race heat, unless otherwise authorized by the RM.
8.4 The competitor should not be wearing shoes that could be dangerous for dogs. Shoes with hardened spikes or studs of 1mm height maximum are allowed.
9. Finish Time Disqualification (optional)
9.1 An eventual time disqualification shall be noted on the entry form, or in the invitation, indicating for which classes it shall apply.
10. Drawing and Rating
10.1 In races with single or dual starts, the starting positions for the first heat of a race shall be determined by a drawing held prior to the race at a time and place designated by the organizer. Unless specifically defined in the rules and regulations or other applicable documents, the organizer is free to decide in which way the drawing shall be performed and if drivers shall attend or be represented.
10.2 In case the organizer decides that drivers or team leaders shall attend the drawing, the drivers, their team leader or designated proxy of each team may draw their own starting position. In their absence, the starting position may be drawn by the Race Marshal or his/her representative. If the drivers or the team leaders agree, the drawing could also be performed via an at-random computer method, with, per class, a team leader or a driver pushing the button.
10.3 The order of the draw shall not be changed, either by addition or substitution. Late entries shall be added in order of receipt.
10.4 The drawing may, at the option of the organizer, be modified by seeding in accordance with a formula established by the organizer, subject to the approval of the WSA.
10.5 A class is rated separately only if there are at least five (5) teams starting in the first heat of that class.
11. Single Start Race
11.1. The first day’s starting positions shall be determined by the draw with Number 1 starting first, Number 2 starting second, etc.
11.2. After the first heat, the starting positions shall be determined by the total elapsed time of the previous heat(s), with the fastest team starting first, the second fastest team starting second, etc.
11.2.1 At the option of the organizer and when notified in the invitation or on the entry form, the elapsed time of the previous single heat shall determine the starting positions.
12. Time keeping and Equal Times
12.1 The time keeping shall be measured at one tenth of a second without any correction (see also 12.3 and 12.4 below).
12.2 If the elapsed time of two teams is identical, the order of start for those teams shall be the reverse order in which they started in the preceding heat.
12.3 Teams with equal times for the entire race shall be awarded the higher finishing position.
12.4 The award for the tied place and the next lower place(s) shall be combined and divided equally among those teams tied for that place.
13. Mass Start and Pursuit Start
13.1 Mass start is not recommended in bikejöring, scooter and rig classes because of the potential risks for dogs and drivers caused by the equipment and the moving parts/ wheels.
14. Starting Point
14.1 In canicross classes, the entire team, with the competitor holding his/her dogs by the collar or the harness, shall stay behind the starting line until the start signal has been given.
14.2 In Dryland scooter, bikejöring and rig classes, the front wheel shall determine the starting point of the team and shall stay behind the starting line until the start signal has been given.
14.3 Before the start, the starting team should come to a complete stop at the starting point defined in rule 14.1. and 14.2
14.4 Trail time for all teams shall begin at the scheduled time of departure.
14.5 A team that fails to be in the starting position at its scheduled starting time or within half of the starting interval after the scheduled starting time shall be declared a late starting team, and shall receive a new starting time plus a time penalty of 3 (three) times the starting interval in its class.
14.5.1 A late-starting team shall not be allowed to start until after the last team entered in its class has started, and after the prescribed starting interval.
14.5.2 If more than one team is declared late, those teams shall start in the originally scheduled starting order.
14.5.3 If a team is late to the starting line for its second scheduled time of departure for any one heat, that team shall be disqualified.
14.6 When a team starts too early according to its scheduled time of departure, and neither the driver nor any of his/her designated handlers has initiated this, either by intention or negligence, that team’s starting time shall be adjusted accordingly.
14.7 Except in cases defined in rule 14.6 above, a team starting too early according to its scheduled time of departure shall receive a time penalty of 3 (three) times the starting interval of the class. Its recorded racing time will start at the original scheduled starting time.
15. A team not clearing the Starting Chute (minimum distance, 30 meters) prior to the scheduled start of the next team may be disqualified.
16. Unless otherwise specified by the Race Marshal, assistance in the Starting Chute shall be allowed.
17.1 A team shall have finished the heat when the first dog on the team crosses the finish line. Other timing methods are allowed, but only if all drivers or team leaders are officially informed on the applicable method before the first start of the race.
17.2 If a loose team crosses the finish line ahead of its driver, that team shall have finished when the driver reaches the finish line.
17.3 The team with the fastest total time of its class shall be declared the winner of that class.
17.4 In case of equal timing whatever the positions of the dogs are the two competitors are tie (See 12.3 above).
17.5 Finishing zone, where the “no right of way” applies, shall be 800 meters long.
III. TRAIL RULES(See also Annex D. and E.)
18. Following the Trail
18.1 A team and driver shall run the full course as established by the race-giving organization.
18.2 If a team leaves the trail, the driver shall return the team to the point at which they left the trail.
19. Driving a Team
19.1 Any driver accepting a ride during the race on any vehicle other than his/her own means of transportation, shall be disqualified, unless in case of a loose team or dog.
19.2 A driver shall not interfere with a competing team.
19.3 Carrying a passenger at any time during the race shall be prohibited unless:
19.3.1 Called for in the conditions of the race.
19.3.2 Giving a ride to a driver in an emergency situation.
20. Assistance on the Trail
20.1 All teams may receive similar assistance of any type from officials stationed at designated points along the trail as authorized by the Race Marshal. Only in case of a loose team or a team which is in clear and present danger to itself, to other teams or to persons, are officials and spectators allowed to take immediate action to secure the safety of the team. In all other cases, officials shall only act upon request of the driver for assistance, which is limited to controlling the dog(s) or to hold the rig/ bike/ scooter. The driver shall stop the team, clearly indicate which assistance is requested, and behave properly towards the officials.
20.2 Drivers running in the same heat may assist each other in any manner authorized by the Race Marshal.
20.3 No one shall assist a team by wilfully pacing it.
21. Loose Team and Dogs
21.1 All drivers must assume that a loose team or dog is an endangered team or dog.
21.2 A loose team or dog(s) shall not delay or interfere with another team.
21.3 The driver of a loose team shall recover his/her team by the quickest means available to ensure the safety of the loose team.
21.3.1 In the event that the driver cannot quickly and safely recover his/her team, the driver must accept assistance, including a ride when available, to recover his/her team. Failure to accept available assistance may result in disqualification of the driver of the loose team. The Race Marshal shall determine if a driver is to be disqualified.
21.3.2 Any person(s) is (are) encouraged to stop and hold a loose team.
21.3.3 All assistance must be reported to the race marshal directly after crossing the finish line. The Race Marshal decides if the team shall be penalized.
21.4 A loose team or dog may resume the trail without penalty provided the team/dog has completed the entire trail and the driver has received only authorized outside assistance.
22. Right of Way
22.3 In the “no-right-of-way” finishing zone, no team shall have the right of way over a finishing team.
23.1 When one team driver intends to pass another team, the passing team driver may request the right of way when the lead dog(s) come(s) within 15 meters of the rig / bike / scooter of the overtaken team.
23.2 The overtaken team driver shall make way for the passing team by steering the sled to one side of the trail, slowing his/her team and, if demanded by the overtaking team driver, stopping and keeping the team from moving forward. Stopping is not required in Dryland canicross, bikejöring and scooter classes (see also 41.4.5, 42.3.5, 43.3.4 and 44.3.5).
23.3 If the passing team becomes tangled or bunched up in the course of the pass, to allow time to untangle and tighten lines, that team’s driver may require the overtaken team driver to remain stopped for up to one (1) minute in Classes involving eight (8) dogs, one half (0.5) minute in all other classes. This rule does not apply to canicross and bikejöring classes.
23.4 Once a team has been passed, that team shall not repass, so long as the driver in front is making an effort to keep his/her team moving forward until,
23.4.1 in Classes involving eight (8) dogs, after no less than four (4) minutes or 1600 meters.
23.4.2 in Limited Classes involving fewer than eight (8) dogs, after no less than two (2) minutes or 800 meters.
23.4.3 at any lesser intervals whenever both drivers are in agreement.
23.4.4 Rule 23.4 does not apply to canicross and bikejöring classes.
23.5 After a pass has been completed, a team driver that has been passed need not hold his/her team while the other driver:
23.5.1 repairs gear or
23.5.2 unhooks and transfers a dog or dogs from one position in a team to another position in the team or
23.5.3 goes off the race trail before the above mentioned distance or time interval has elapsed.
23.5.4 For canicross and bikejöring holding is not required unless the passing resulted in animal welfare problems or a crash of the driver.
23.6 A driver coming upon two or more teams stopped together may pass all such teams after making sure that the passing does not cause any danger for the overtaken teams. The stopped drivers shall make every effort to clear the trail for the moving team(s).
23.7 Teams following each other shall maintain an interval of not less than one team length, except when passing or in the no-right-of-way zone.
23.8 When a team is overtaken in the no-right-of-way zone, that team does not have to stop and yield the trail.
24.1 Organizers and Race Marshals shall, in close cooperation with the race veterinarian, observe the guidelines as per Annex B.III. and B.IV.
IV. CONDUCT25. Responsibility and Sportsmanship
25.1 All drivers shall be responsible for the conduct of their dogs, their designated handler, and themselves whenever in the race area or on the trail.
25.2 Common sense and good sportsmanship shall prevail. If the Race Marshal determines that a driver’s, handler’s or team’s conduct at any time in the race area or on the trail is detrimental to the sport/race, that team shall be disqualified.
25.3 In principle loose dogs are not allowed at the race area. However, the Race Marshal has the right to waive this rule if he is convinced that it is in the interests of the teams, and that drivers are in full control of their dogs. The latter meaning, that the loose dogs will not bother other dogs, the stakeout area, or equipment of participants or others. In case the Race Marshal finds reason to waive the rule, he shall discuss the matter with the organizer and, if agreed upon, inform the drivers at the first drivers meeting, along with other possible supplementary regulations. If a driver or his dog(s) infringes this rule, the driver shall be penalized with, at least, a warning.
26. Abuse of Dogs
26.1 Abuse of dogs, with or without an implement, shall be prohibited. If a driver, in the opinion of the Race Marshal abuses a dog, that driver shall be disqualified.
V. RULES VIOLATIONS(See also the Annex A)
27. Reports by Race Officials
27.1 Race officials shall report over rule violations to the Race Marshal verbally, in person or by means of communication, immediately or directly following the heat in which the violation occurred. All verbal reports shall be followed by a written report, given to the Race Marshal in principle within one (1) hour of the completion of the concerned heats.
27.2 The Race Marshal shall act, at his/her discretion, on any overt violations witnessed and reported by race officials. The Race Marshal shall inform the reporting official(s) on his/her decision and possible further action.
27.3 When a Rules Enforcing Officer finds that a rules violation has occurred, s/he shall impose a penal reaction and report the incident to the RM who may also request a hearing.
28. Reports by Race Contestants
28.1 Drivers wishing to report an alleged violation of the rules by another contestant shall notify the Race Marshal or the Race Marshal’s representative immediately following the heat in which the incident occurred. Notification may be verbal.
28.2 All verbal reports shall be followed with a written report (see example of a protest form in appendix), given to the Race Marshal within one (1) hour of the completion of the participant’s heat in which the alleged violation occurred.
29. Protests and Hearings
29.1 Any driver implicated in a report of an alleged violation of the rules will be notified of the protest by the Race Marshal and provided access to copies of the written protests as soon as they become available but in all cases before any hearings are conducted.
29.2. Said hearing shall be conducted by the Race Marshal.
29.3 Contestants subject to a penal reaction from any Rules Enforcing Officer may appeal, i.e. request a hearing before the Race Jury.
30. Disciplinary Action.
30.1 For violation of any WSA Regulation, the Race Marshal shall either issue a verbal reprimand, a warning or disqualify the driver and team from the race.
30.2 No other disciplinary action shall be imposed, unless specifically defined in the Race Rules or Race Procedures.
30.3 Decisions shall be announced as promptly as practical but no later than four (4) hours prior to the start of any ensuing heat(s).
30.4 Any disciplinary action following the final heat of the race shall be acted upon prior to the awards ceremony.
30.5 In the case of drug testing, the above time schedule does not apply to allow for laboratory findings and hearings, should the latter become necessary. No disqualification or other action will be taken against any contestant for alleged drug infractions pending the results of said tests.
30.6 Warnings and disqualifications shall be issued in the result list. All disciplinary actions shall be mentioned in the Race Marshal’s report, with reference to the violated provision.
31. The decisions of the Race Marshal shall be final unless promptly appealed to the Appeals Jury if implemented (see rules 33 through 34 below) in cases concerning a contestant’s further participation in the event.
32. Appeals Jury at World and European Championships
32.1 Any decision of the Race Marshal affecting a contestant’s participation in the event may be appealed to the WSA Appeals Jury. Such appeal must be made as soon as practical following the official rendering of the decision. The appeal must be in writing in the German or English language and shall state the alleged infraction, the decision reached, the penalty imposed and what the contestant believes to be incorrect or unfair.
32.2 In World and European Championship events, the Appeals Jury shall consist of either three or five members depending on the number of WSA officials assigned to take part (either one or two officials, appointed by the WSA President) on the jury. The other members of the jury will be national team leaders elected to serve on the jury by the other national team leaders.
32.2.1 If two WSA officials are appointed, then three team leaders will be elected.
32.2.2 If only one WSA official is appointed, then only two national team leaders will be elected.
32.2.3 The two national team leaders receiving the next highest amounts of votes cast after those elected will serve as alternates in case one or more of the team leaders on the jury are required to decline their appointment due to a potential conflict of interest in any specific appeal.
32.2.4 The team leader members shall be elected by a secret vote of all team leaders. All team leaders are in principle eligible and no nominations will be held prior to the voting. All team leaders will receive a ballot with a place for either two or three names to be filled in. Team leaders may vote for themselves but may only cast one vote for any single name. The team leaders with the highest number of votes will fill the positions on the jury followed by the alternate positions.
32.2.5 The President shall designate which WSA official is to serve as the chair of the Appeals Jury.
32.3 In principle drivers and /or member organizations may appeal the decision of the Appeal Committee via the WSA Disciplinary Committee. However, during an event the decision of the Appeal Committee will stay.
33. Appeals Jury at Events other than World and European Championships
33.1 In events other than the World and European Championships, it is left to the choice of the organizer whether or not to implement a similar Appeals Jury. In last instance, the decision may be appealed via the applicable governing body of the member organization.
34. Appeals Jury Investigation and Decision
34.1 The jury shall conduct a new and independent investigation into the allegations.
34.2 The jury will render a decision following secret deliberations. They may affirm, overturn or modify the decision of the Race Marshal in any way necessary to achieve a correct and just outcome.
34.3 The jury will announce its decision as soon as possible so as not to interfere with the subsequent heats of the affected class.
VI. ANIMAL WELFARE RULES35. Supplementary to the WSA Ethics paper and dog transportation guidelines, the following rules apply:
35.1 All drivers shall guarantee- and be responsible for- the welfare of their dogs
35.2 Rule offences shall be corrected immediately, with the race rule 26.1 being decisive (dog abuse = disqualification). RGOs and RMs shall not hesitate to report serious offenders to a higher level.
36. Means of transportation
36.1 All means of transportation for dogs shall guarantee protection against the weather (temperature, wind, rain etc.) as well as against exhaust gasses.
36.2 In case of the transport of one or two dogs without a box, the dogs shall never be transported loose and never be fastened via a line to the collar. For the safety of dogs always dog boxes are to be preferred.
36.3 A sufficient supply of fresh air and a good air circulation shall be present.
37. Dog boxes
37.1 In case of more than 2 dogs, the animals shall be transported in boxes. These shall be well- and safely constructed, preventing escape and / or injury of the dogs
37.2 Since dogs vary in size, the dimensions of the boxes are not strictly laid down. However, for safety reasons boxes shall be neither too small nor too large. The box shall be large enough for the dog(s) to stretch out, stand up, turn around and to curl up.
37.3 In case countries do have official, specific regulations for dog boxes, the RGO shall, in case of an international event, publish the eventual deviating regulations in the race invitation.
37.4 The boxes shall be clean and dry. If hay or straw is used it shall be fresh. If other material is used it shall be as such as it cannot harm the dogs.
37.5 Inside the boxes, the dogs shall not be chained.
37.6 Dogs in their boxes shall never be unattended for a long period. If the driver/ handler for some reason cannot meet this requirement, he/ she shall make arrangements with somebody else (and leave a key)
38. Stake-outs etc.
38.1 Stake out chains/ cables, drop chains/ cables and other tie on means shall be so constructed that comfort and some freedom of movement is guaranteed. It shall be possible for the individual dog to lie down.
38.2 The chain / cable at which the dog is fastened shall never be such long that they could create dangerous situations for the dogs like tangling with another dog or even suffocation.
38.3 All material shall be in good condition preventing possible injury. The ends of cable lines shall be wrapped to prevent injury because of unravelling of the ends.
38.4 Dogs at stake outs or on drop-out chains shall be attended.
38.5 Drivers/ handlers shall keep the stake out/ parking area clean, leave no food and dispose of the dog droppings or other waste in containers available for that purpose. If no such containers are foreseen , one should take the garbage for disposal at another suitable place not disturbing other persons.
38.6 Mating of bitches shall not be allowed at race sites.
38.7 Puppies shall not be allowed at events unless they are fully inoculated. Persons bringing puppies to an event site without correct papers will be asked to leave.
38.8 Puppies shall not be offered for sale at an event site.
38.9 Physical or verbal abuse by any person of any person at any part of the event site is forbidden.
39.1 Harnesses and Lines
39.1.1 All dogs shall be harnessed in single or double file.
39.1.2 All harnesses shall be well fitting and at least be padded around the neck and chest area. They shall be made from flexible fabrics. Lines must be free from excessive wear.
39.1.3 All multiple dog teams must have a snub line attached to the gangline between the rear of the team and point where it is attached to the rig/ scooter. This snub line must be of a length that is long enough to enable release from a static object (e.g. gate post or tree) by the driver whilst on, and in control of the rig or scooter.
39.1.4 Chain lines are strictly prohibited. All other lines shall not endanger the dogs welfare and are subject to the approval of the Race Marshal (see 7.2).
39.2 Helmets and other safety equipment
39.2.1 For all participants, with the exception of canicross, a helmet is mandatory. The helmet should be a model approved by a national test registry.
39.2.2 It is not recommended to tie oneself to the rig/ bike/ scooter or to the line. If one does, it is at his/her own risk and the tie line must be easy to undo by either using a loose loop around the wrist or a quick release
39.3 Other equipment
39.3.1 The Race Organizer may mandate additional special rules for safety equipment.
I. ENTRY RULES40. Entry Rules
40.1 At the option of the race-giving organization, competitions may be held in the following disciplines:
40.1.2 Bikejöring one dog
40.1.3 1 and 2-dog Scooter
40.1.4 4-, 6-, 8-dog Rig
40.2 After the first heat and each ensuing heat, a driver may voluntarily reduce the size of the team, subject to class minimums. See also V. RIG CLASSES.
40.3 The Race Marshal may reduce the size of any team determined to be too large for the designated driver.
40.4 Any dog having raced in one class of a Dryland race shall not be eligible to race in a second class on the same day, unless the second class is canicross.
II Canicross41. Canicross
41.1 A canicross team consists of a competitor, racing solely on foot, and one dog.
For the age of the athletes see Annex F.I.: Age of athletes for each class
At the option of the race giving organization, competitions may be held in the following classes:
41.2.1 Canicross junior men (DCMJ) and Canicross Junior women (DCWJ).
41.2.2 Canicross senior men (DCM) and Canicross senior women (DCW).
41.2.3 Canicross veteran men (DCMV) and Canicross veteran women (DCWV).
41.2.4 A competitor shall not run in both junior and senior or senior and veteran classes during the same event.
41.2.5 Children classes with competitors being younger than the ages of juniors as outlined in Annex F.I. may also be held but not as Championship classes.
41.3.1 The dog shall be attached to the driver by a line with shock absorber at all time. The snub line shall be attached to the driver by a hip belt or any other harness type equipment (at least 7 cm wide over the spine). It is prohibited to have any form of metal hook or ring at the driver’s end of the line. The expanded snub line shouldn’t be less than 2 meters and shouldn't exceed 3 meters in length.
41.4 Start, Trail and Finish Rules
41.4.1 The competitor and the dog shall wait behind the starting line until the start signal has been given.
41.4.2 The driver shall not pace the dogs by running ahead of or force the dog to run in any way.
41.4.3 Pulling the dog or forcing the dog to move forward by any means is strictly forbidden.
41.4.4 If a dog becomes unfit or refuses to advance for any reason, the competitor is not permitted to finish the heat.
41.4.5 During the overtaking procedure, the overtaken team shall make unimpeded way for the passing team. On the command “TRAIL,” the participant and the dog are obliged to hold the same side of the trail and slow down.
41.4.6 If a mass start is organized, all the competitors of the same class shall wait together behind the starting line holding their dog by the collar or the harness. If they cannot all stay on one line, they shall set more lines as required. Seeded competitors, if any, shall stay on the first line(s) ahead of the non-seeded competitors.
41.4.7 Finish rules: See Chapter One, 17.
III. BIKEJÖRING42. Bikejöring One Dog
For the age of the athletes see Annex F.I.: Age of athletes for each class
At the option of the race giving organization, competitions may be held in the following classes:
42.1.1 Bikejöring .junior men (DBMJ) and Bikejöring junior women (DBWJ)
42.1.2 Bikejöring senior men (DBM) and Bikejöring senior women (DBW).
42.1.3 Bikejöring veteran men (DBMV) and Bikejöring veteran women (DBWV).
42.2.1 The dog shall be attached to the bicycle or to the driver by a line with shock absorber not less than 2.5 meters expanded and not exceeding 3 meters in length expanded in front of the bike. If the line is attached to the driver, it should be by a hip belt (at least 7 cm wide over the spine). It is prohibited to have any form of metal hook or ring at the driver’s end of the line.
42.2.2 The bicycle shall be equipped with an efficient brake on each wheel.
42.2.3 All drivers must wear a helmet approved by a national test registry. Wearing gloves is recommended.
42.2.4 Studded tires are not allowed on bikes
42.3 Start, Trail and Finish Rules
42.3.1 The front wheel of the bicycle shall determine the starting point of the team and shall stay behind the starting line until the start signal has been given.
42.3.2 The driver shall not pace the dog by driving ahead.
42.3.3 Pulling the dog or forcing the dog to move forward by any means is strictly forbidden.
42.3.4 If a dog becomes unfit or refuses to advance for any reason, the driver is not permitted to finish the heat.
42.3.5 During the overtaking procedure, the overtaken team shall make unimpeded way for the passing team. On the command “TRAIL,” the participant and the dog are obliged to hold the same side of the trail and stop pedalling.
42.3.6 Finish rules: See Chapter One, 17.
IV. SCOOTER43. Scooter
For the age of athletes, see Annex F.I.: Age of athletes for each class
At the option of the race giving organization, competitions may be held in the following classes:
43.1.1 Scooter one dog (DS1). A Scooter one dog team consists of a driver riding a two-wheeled scooter-type vehicle pulled by one dog.
126.96.36.199Providing that there are enough competitors for both categories, Scooter one dog class shall be divided into men (DSM1/ DSM1J) and women (DSW1/ DSW1J) categories.
43.1.2 Scooter 2-dog (DS2).
188.8.131.52A Scooter 2-dog team consists of a driver riding a two-wheeled scooter-type vehicle pulled by one or two dogs.
43.2.1 The dog shall be attached to the scooter by a line with shock absorber not less than 2.5 meters expanded and not exceeding 3 meters in length expanded in front of the scooter.
43.2.2 A neckline shall be used in two-dog classes
43.2.3 The scooter must not be fitted with any device to assist propulsion and shall be equipped with an efficient brake on each wheel.
43.2.4 Bicycles without pedal mechanisms and bicycles with the pedal mechanisms blocked will be allowed.
43.2.5 Light three- and four-wheeled rigs will be allowed in the Scooter classes and are compulsory in DS2J class
43.2.6 The minimum wheel diameter shall be 12 inches (30 cm).
43.2.7 All drivers must wear a helmet approved by a national test registry. Wearing gloves is recommended.
43.2.8 Studded tires are not allowed on scooters
43.3 Start, Trail and Finish Rules
43.3.1 The front wheel of the scooter shall determine the starting point of the team and shall stay behind the starting line until the start signal has been given.
43.3.2 The driver shall ride the scooter behind his/her dogs.
43.3.3 If a dog becomes unfit or refuses to advance for any reason, the driver is not permitted to finish the heat.
43.3.4 During the overtaking procedure the overtaken team shall make unimpeded way for the passing team. On the command “TRAIL,” the participant and the dog are obliged to hold the same side of the trail and slow down.
43.3.5 Finish rules: See Chapter One, 17.
V. RIG CLASSES44 Rig Classes
For the age of the athletes, see Annex F.I.: Age of athletes for each class
At the option of the race giving organization, competitions may be held in the following classes:
44.1.1 Rig Classes 4-Dog rig (DR4): A limited Four-Dog rig shall consist of not more than four (4) dogs and not less than three (3) dogs.
44.1.2 6-Dog rig (DR6): A limited Six-Dog rig shall consist of not more than six (6) dogs and not less than four (4) dogs.
44.1.3 8-Dog rig (DR8): A limited Eight-Dog rig shall consist of not more than eight (8) dogs and not less than five (5) dogs.
44.2.1 All dogs shall be harnessed in single or double file.
44.2.2 All dogs shall be fastened to the tug line, which shall be made of non rigid, flexible line, with a neck line and a tail line with the exception of the leader(s), who may run without a neck line.
44.2.3 The rig in 4-Dog classes may either have three (3) or four (4) wheels. A 4-wheeled rig shall be used in DR6 and DR8 classes. The minimum wheels diameter shall be 12 inches (30 cm). All rigs shall be equipped with:
184.108.40.206An efficient brake on the back wheels. Having brakes in the front wheels is recommended in 4-dog class. Front wheel brakes are compulsory in 6 and 8-dog classes
220.127.116.11Sufficient drop chains or cables to tether dogs at the dropping check points
44.2.4 All drivers must wear a helmet approved by a national test registry. Wearing gloves is recommended
44.2.5 Studded tires are not allowed on rigs. Rigs must not exceed 150cm (60”) in overall width. Rigs must not be fitted with any device to assist propulsion. Rigs shall be well and safely constructed. There should be no excessive play in wheel bearings or headset bearings. Rigs must be adapted to the number of dogs in the team, be stable and shall, as much as possible, guarantee the safety of dogs and drivers. Rigs must be fabricated in such a way as to avoid the creation of any sharp projection
44.3 Start, Trail and Finish Rules
44.3.1 The front wheel(s) shall determine the starting point of the team and shall stay behind the starting line until the start signal has been given.
44.3.2 The driver may ride the rig, pedal or run as wished.
44.3.3 The driver shall not pace the dogs by running ahead or force the dog to run in any way.
44.3.4 Dog drop check points shall be provided at least every 3 km and may be combined with normal check points. They shall be equipped with a stake-out and water. Drivers must carry sufficient drop chains or cables to tether dogs at the dropping check points. Any dog suffering injury or becoming unfit to run during competition may be dropped at the nearest dog drop point, with the remainder of the team able to complete the race without penalty provided that the requirements of the class definitions are adhered to. Dogs dropped at check points shall not be allowed to start in succeeding heats. If no possibilities are provided to drop dogs and a dog becomes unfit or refuses to advance for any reason, the driver is not permitted to finish the heat. For safety reasons, the transport of a dog on the rig is strictly forbidden in all classes. Dropped dogs will be recovered at the end of the class by the race officials. Where no marshal point is available, no dog should be tethered and left unaccompanied. The competitor should snub their team at the soonest opportunity and await recovery by race officials at the end of the current class. The competitor will be disqualified for that day’s heat.
44.3.5 During the overtaking procedure the overtaken team shall make unimpeded way for the passing team. On the command “TRAIL,” the overtaken team is obliged to hold the same side of the trail and slow down. On the command “STOP,” the overtaken team is obligated to stop movement forward. Chapter One, 23 applies.
44.3.6 Finish rules: See Chapter One, 17.
VI. DISTANCES45. For Dryland distances see Annex D.II.
VII. TEMPERATURES46. For guidelines on temperatures at Dryland races see Annex B.III.
The dogs shall be at least 15 months old in the same month of the first day of the World/ European Championship in canicross and rig classes and at least 18 months old in bikejöring and scooter classes (regardless of whether a scooter or a lightweight rig is used).
A. RULES ENFORCEMENTA.I. Rules Enforcing Officers
1 Race Judges are the Rules Enforcing Officers at an event. Rules Enforcing Officers shall be appointed and exercise their assignments according to the WSA Officials Regulations.
2 A Race Judge should have an WSA Race Judge License but shall have at least a Race Judge License from an IFSS recognized body.
3 Two of the Race Judges shall be appointed Race Marshal and Chief Judge, respectively. The Race Marshal shall have the ultimate authority, and the ultimate responsibility, at the event. The Race Marshal is the only official who can decide upon a disqualification.
4 All Race Judges shall have the full authority to enforce all Race Regulations, within the prescribed limits.
5 References to the Race Marshal in WSA Regulations also apply for Race Judges, when appropriate.
6 A Race Judge may delegate parts of his/her authority to designated officials, except the authority to impose penal measures.
7 At World Championships and European Championships no Rules Enforcing Officer may be a participant of the event. During other events the Race Marshal is not allowed to participate but the other judges may. If so, they shall not judge in the class they entered and also take no part in the deliberations of said class.
8 Details on the appointment and the obligations of WSA judges are available on the WSA Race Judge Regulations and licensing procedures which are also interesting and binding for organizers and member organizations.
A.II. Race Jury and Appeals Jury
(see also Race Rules 27 through 34)
9 The Race Judges shall constitute the Race Jury of the event. The Race Marshal shall be the Race Jury’s chairperson.
10 The Race Jury shall be summoned by its chairperson
10.1 when requested by one of its members,
10.2 for a hearing,
10.3 for reviewing a rules violation which might lead to a disqualification.
11 The Race Jury decides whether its deliberations shall be held in a closed session or not.
12 The Race Jury shall decide on the eventual choice of penal measures in all cases laid before it. The Race Jury’s chairperson shall have a casting vote in case of a tie. In the question of a disqualification, the chairperson may vote differently with his/her casting vote.
12.1 In World and European Championships, the Appeals Jury may be appealed to by a team leader when a decision of the Race Marshal is affecting the participation of a contestant in the event.
12.2 The Appeals Jury shall consist of three or five members depending on the number of officials assigned to take part (either one or two appointed by the WSA President) on the Appeals Jury. The other members of the Appeals Jury will be national team leaders elected to serve on the Appeals Jury by the other team leaders.
A.III. Penal Measures
13 If the violated race regulation does not mandate any unconditional reaction, the choice of penal measures shall be made according to the following:
13.1 Reprimand: for a minor rules infraction with no consequences for any participant, and being the contestant's first offence in the event.
13.2 Warning: for a minor or negligent infraction of the race regulations, which does not give the contestant any significant advantage and entails no significant disadvantage to his/her fellow contestants, and is not deemed detrimental to the sport.
13.3.1 when the contestant intentionally, or by gross negligence, violates the race regulations, and this has given him/her an advantage, or any of his/her fellow contestants a disadvantage,
13.3.2 in case of a recurrence, when the contestant has already been given a warning or reprimand for the same or similar offence,
13.3.3 in case of repeated offenses, showing that the contestant is not capable of, or willing to, pay heed to the race regulations.
13.3.4 in case of dog abuse with or without implement.
13.3.5 in case of verbal or physical abuse of race officials and unsportsmanlike behaviour.
13.3.6 Time disqualification: An eventual time disqualification shall be noted on the entry form, or in the invitation, indicating the factor and for which classes it shall apply. If a time disqualification rule applies and the prescribed limit is exceeded, that team shall not be allowed to compete in subsequent heats.
14 Other Penal Procedures:
14.1 The violator shall be given a short written notice. A reprimand may be verbal.
14.2 Contestants subject to a penal reaction from any Rules Enforcing Officer may appeal, i.e. request a hearing before the Race Jury.
B. ELIGIBILITYB.I. Entries
15 The race shall be open to entries from members of all WSA recognized member federations, except those refused by the organizer for just cause. Organizers are entitled to open their races to drivers from non WSA member organizations if they feel it to be benefiting the sports and/or WSA. Participants to the WSA European & World Championships shall be nominated by their respective national WSA member federations.
16 An entry for a race shall be submitted prior to the start of the race, subject to entry deadlines as determined by the organizer. See also Race Rule 1.1.
17 Disabled drivers shall be encouraged to participate. However, their participation shall not hinder or endanger other competitors or dogs, including the dog(s) of the disabled competitor. The Race Marshal shall decide on possible participation of the disabled driver and, if required, a helper, and always inspect the equipment. The overall safety for the disabled driver and his/her dog(s) shall prevail. If the Race Marshal feels that it would benefit the disabled driver and the total race to start the disabled team as the last in the class, s/he has the right to do so in all heats of the race, taking into account that the team shall be ranked according to its total results.
Note: It is also possible to start the disabled team a certain time before the first team, but then, there is always the risk on hindering overtaking teams in case of problems, and the disabled driver may feel he/she is more or less racing outside the field. If starting last, he/she has always the chance to overtake one or more teams.
18 Race veterinarians are present throughout the race to monitor the health and welfare of all dogs, advise drivers in caring for their dogs’ medical needs, and provide veterinary treatment for dropped dogs, if necessary.
19 The race veterinarian in conjunction with the Race Marshal or race judge may rule a dog(s) unfit to start or continue in the race and to remove the dog(s) from the race for medical or other reasons. If the Race Veterinarian diagnoses any dog present in the race area to have a contagious disease, that dog shall be disqualified and the competitor shall immediately leave the race site with all his/her dogs.
20 All dogs participating in a race shall be vaccinated according to the current recommendations of the WSA Chief Veterinary officer. Vaccinations need to be done in accordance with regulations of the host country in which the race is taking place.
B.III. Temperatures at Dryland races – Guidelines
21 At Dryland races there shall be a thermometer and a hygrometer in the starting area. They shall be readily visible, placed in the shade, at 50 centimetres (20 inches) above ground level.
22 The minimum and maximum temperatures and humidity shall be noted during the entire race.
23 Given the minima and maxima, trail conditions and local circumstances (e.g. humidity), the following guidelines are available for decisions to be taken by the race giving organization and the race marshal for the well-being of the dogs:
23.1 Temperatures below 10°C for all classes and with a humidity below 85 %: normal competition.
23.2 Temperatures above 10°C, but below 14°C: the distances shall be reduced down to, or less than the minimums given in 37 below, with the exception of canicross. The maximum temperature is set at 16°C for canicross classes.
23.3 Temperatures above 14°C: no team shall be harnessed except for canicross (up to maximum 16°C - see 23.2 above).
23.4 If the temperature reaches 14°C (or 16°C for canicross), the race marshal shall call a meeting with the race veterinarian(s) in order to decide upon whether the race shall be delayed or cancelled. The veterinarian’s opinion shall be preponderant in case of different opinions. Animal welfare shall always be the major deciding factor.
23.5 Depending on the race trail (i.e. large section under the sun) or other facts, the Race Marshal may impose shorter distances or other measures if this is favouring the sports, even if the maximum temperatures above are not reached.
B.IV. Extremely low Temperatures– Guidelines
In the event of extremely low temperatures, leading to frozen ground surface the jury together with the Organizing Committee and the team leaders shall decide if the race should be cancelled, have a delay on the starting time or reduce the race distance. Any National Federation standards must be considered in making the final decision.
24 The starting intervals should be:
24.1 one half (.5) or one (1) minute in canicross and bikejöring.
24.2 one (1) or two (2) minutes in limited classes involving eight dogs or less, scooter 1 and 2 dogs.
25 Interval Options
25.1 The organizer may decide to use the longer starting interval in the first heat, and the shorter interval in the ensuing heat(s).
D. THE TRAILD.I. Trail requirements
26.1 The trail shall be safe for dogs and drivers.
26.2 The course should be of suitable surface, avoiding where possible such surfaces as concrete, tarmac, sharp gravel or other material likely to damage the feet of the dogs, except at necessary road crossings.
26.3 When laying out the trail, special attention shall be shown on turns and downhill stretches. The entire trail shall be constructed with consideration to the fastest and biggest teams expected to participate.
26.4 Mushers must be permitted to inspect the trail. The course will be available for inspection by competitors during a time period advised by the Race Marshal.
26.5 It is each individual driver’s responsibility to ensure that the designated course is safe and suitable for their team, bearing in mind its size and speed and their own level of skill and experience and the prevailing weather conditions at the time.
26.6 No competing dogs will be allowed on the marked course (in whole or part) except during the musher’s designated heat.
27 The trail shall not cross itself.
28 Trails shall, to the optimal extent possible, be broadly constructed to facilitate passing.
29 There should be sufficient space between the lanes so that teams are unable to distract each other.
30 Trails should be shielded from parking lots and parked cars.
31 Trails should not cross a traffic-laden road on the same level. However, if this cannot be avoided, there shall be a prior permission to block off the road during the competition. Dependable control shall be on hand and the trail should cross the road in a 90 degree angle.
32 The trail shall be designed so that speed is prioritized and should be wide enough to enable one team to overtake another team.
33 The Starting Chute shall be at least 30 meters long and organized in such a way that a team can be entirely removed from the trail.
34 The Finishing Zone shall be at least 800 meters long, wide enough for passing and with no sharp turns.
35 The starting and finish lines shall be clearly defined.
36 Watering points shall be provided at least every 3 km along the trails, so that the dogs may be watered and cooled.
D.II. Trail distances
37. Dryland races: Distances (per heat or stage)
37.1 Canicross seniors and veterans, minimum of 2 km maximum 8 km (1.2 to 5 miles)
37.2. Canicross juniors, minimum of 1 km maximum 4 km (0.6 to 2.5 miles)
37.3. 1-dog Bikejöring class, minimum of 2 km maximum of 10 km (1.2 to 6.2 miles)
37.4. 1-dog Scooter class, minimum of 2 km maximum of 8 km (1.2 to 5 miles)
37.5. 2-dog Scooter class, minimum of 2 km maximum of 8 km (1.2 to 5 miles)
37.6. 4-dog Rig class, minimum of 4 km maximum of 8 km (2.5 to 5 miles)
37.7. 6-dog Rig class minimum of 4 km maximum of 10 km (2.5 to 6.2 miles)
37.8. 8-dog Rig class minimum of 4 km maximum of 12 km (2.5 to 7.5 miles)
E. TRAIL MARKINGSE.I. General
38 The trail shall be marked with a sufficient number of clearly visible markers, so placed that there will be no doubt for the driver where to go.
39 All Trail Markers shall be at least 25 cm in diameter or length per side.
40 Only one side of the sign shall be coloured to indicate the proper direction of travel.
41 Trail markers shall be placed about one (1) meter beyond the edge of the trail, and from 60 to 120 cm above the surface of the trail.
42 All markers shall be visible as far ahead as possible and at least 50 m.
43 Markers applicable for a certain class, or certain classes, only, shall be marked with the class(es)' identification or with the trail distance of the concerned class(es) by white letters in the centre of the marker. Information on elapsed distance shall be indicated by a black number on a white sign directly above a blue marker on the same stake. The class identifications shall be easily seen and read by the sportsmen/women. The identification shall be explained at the musher meeting prior the race.
44 Information on remaining distance shall be indicated by a black negative number on a white sign directly below a blue marker on the same stake.
45 Markers shall not be so placed, or made of such a material, that they might constitute a danger for dogs or drivers.
E.II. Red Markers (Turn markers, preferably of round shape).
46 Red Markers shall be used at all intersections and crossings involving turns. The markers shall be placed about 20 meters ahead of the point in question at the same side of the trail as to which the teams shall turn.
47 The same procedure shall also be applied for all blind turns on the trail.
E.III. Blue Markers (Straight ahead or Confirmation markers, preferably of square shape).
48 Blue markers may be placed on either side of the trail.
49 Blue markers used to indicate the correct trail after a crossing or turn shall be placed about 20 m beyond, and should be visible when approaching, the point in question.
50 Blue markers shall be used:
50.1 at intersections or crossings when the trail is going straight through. The sign shall be placed about 20 meters ahead of the intersection.
50.2 beyond turns, which apply only to a certain class, or certain classes. Such blue markers shall have the same class identification as the red turn marker.
51 Blue markers should be used:
51.1 beyond all intersections, turns or blind corners, which are marked with a red marker.
51.2 every full kilometre along the entire trail. At least every five (5) kilometres they should be marked with the elapsed or remaining distance.
E.IV. Yellow Markers (Caution markers, preferably of triangle shape).
52 Yellow markers may be placed on either side of the trail. Yellow markers indicate portions of the trail, where slow, cautious passage is recommended, e.g. steep downhill, really sharp turns, icy spots. Yellow markers shall be placed about 20 meters ahead of the caution area.
53 If the caution area covers a length of the trail, two yellow markers shall be placed on the same stake at the beginning of the caution area. The end of the caution area shall be indicated with one yellow marker with a diagonal red or black cross.
54 All yellow markers shall be presented and explained at the Team Captain and/or drivers Meeting and they shall be indicated on the trail map.
E.V. Checkpoint Markers
55 Checkpoints shall be indicated with rectangular white signs with black letters.
E.VI. Other Markers
56 The end of the Starting Chute shall be indicated by markers on both sides of the trail.
57 A white marker shall be placed at the start of the Finishing Chute with the distance remaining (usually 150m for bikejör, scooter and canicross classes and 800 m for all other classes before the finish line) to indicate the beginning of the no-right-of-way zone.
58 Portions of the trail, where the correct trail is not clearly visible, may be marked with additional markings. Such additional marking shall never be considered a replacement for ordinary marking according to this Rule.
59 Marking for night heats. In addition to the trail marking described above, each marker should be equipped with light-reflecting material (minimum 25 cm2).
60 Other markers as prescribed in 46 up to and including 59 above are only allowed if all drivers have been informed before the first start. At WSA events the technical organizer shall obtain WSA permission to use different markers.
E.VII. Trail Blocking
61 At trail crossings considered so difficult that even good teams may have problems, blockings shall be used in addition to marking.
62 A blocking shall appear as a physical hindrance for the dogs but shall not constitute any danger for dogs, drivers or equipment.
63 At trail crossings where different classes shall follow different trails, there shall be a Trail Steward, performing the necessary changes of the blockings after each class and, as necessary, directing/assisting teams to the correct trail.
64 The presence of a blocking or a Trail Steward does not allow for ordinary marking to be omitted.
F. Age of athletes
F.I. Age of Athletes for Each Class
65 The age limits for athletes to compete in the various classes are as follows:
The age of the competitor is the age he/ she reaches on the first day of the competition.
This form must be handed to the Race Marshall within one hour after the protester has finished.